Resources 資源

U.S. Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 
http://www.state.gov/g/tip 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/index.html

U.S. Department of Justice
https://www.justice.gov/humantrafficking

Polaris Project
http://www.polarisproject.org 

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Investigative Programs, Crimes Against Children 
http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/cac/crimesmain.htm 

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
http://www.ncmec.org 

New York State Anti-Trafficking Coalition
http://www.stophumantraffickingny.org


Human Trafficking

Definition
Human trafficking is a rights violation in which people are treated as objects that can be bought, used and sold. Traffickers use many methods to control victims and specifically prey on the vulnerability of immigrants. The U.S. State Department defines human trafficking as “the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex through the use of force, fraud, or coercion”. The United Nation’s definition of human trafficking only requires the purpose of the crime to be “to exploit them for profit.” The international community has not agreed on the definition of “exploitation” and mental harm is often ignored. 

Facts
According to the State Department Trafficking in Persons Report, an estimated 14,500 to 17,500 people are trafficked into the U.S. every year. About 80% of victims of sex trafficking incidents are U.S. citizens; however, a study by the Red Umbrella Project showed that in Queens, almost half of the defendants arrested for prostitution are Chinese-speaking immigrants.
Globally, at least 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked each year. Human trafficking occurs in almost every country, whether it is as a country of exportation, transit, or destination. Criminal groups use guns and drugs to force victims into prostitution, illegal labor, slavery, organ harvesting, and child and infant trading.

Due to language barriers and threats from criminal groups, victims are unwilling and afraid to seek help. In many cases, victims may not realize that they themselves are victims.


Prevention/Resolution
Garden of Hope has been providing continued services to human trafficking victims since 2013, when it first received a case through the GOH hotline. 

Since September 2013, New York courts have started to connect women charged with prostitution and performing massage without a license to social services through the Human Trafficking Intervention Courts, treating them as victims instead of criminals. After completing one session with an immigration attorney and five sessions with a service provider, their case is dismissed if they are not arrested again after six months. Garden of Hope is one of these service providers. We advocate for clients in the court and provide counseling, case management, support groups, and shelter as needed.

Specifically, we conduct trauma and needs assessments, define human trafficking and explain legal rights to the clients, help them develop coping strategies to manage stress, and connect them with health and social resources, jobs and training. It is our wish that they can at last heal and reconstruct their lives. 

We have also participated in activities to raise public awareness towards the pressing issue of human trafficking, such as giving talks and other public events. 

sources:
        1.http://www.courtinnovation.org/research/announcement-new-yorks-human-trafficking-intervention-initiative
        2.http://www.americanthinker.com/2014/07/human_trafficking_estimates_and_statistics.html#ixzz3pLAS6Z8L 

人口販運

定義
當違反一個人的人權,將其視作物品來利用、供買賣,就構成人口販賣犯罪。人口販子利用不同方法控制受害人, 特別是處於弱勢勢環境下的新移民。美國政府把人口販賣定義為“通過武力、欺騙或威迫的方式招募、窩藏、運送、供給或接收人員作強迫勞動或性交易。聯合國的廣義只指出目的是 “剝削以獲得利益”。
國際社會還未就“剝削”的定義達成共識,而心理傷害更少提及。


現實狀況
根據美國政府《人口販賣報告》,每年大約有一萬四千五百人到一萬七千五百人被販賣到美國。

性交易人口販運案件中的受害者大約80%是美国公民,在紅雨傘計劃中(Red Umbrella Project)在皇后區將近一半的被控賣淫的被告50%為說中文的移民。

全球每年至少有六十至八十萬人被販賣,幾乎每一個國家都是輸出國、轉運國,或是目的國而無法免疫於國際人口買賣。犯罪集團多牽涉槍械、毒品以及色情行業,以逼迫賣淫、非自願勞役或服務、奴隸、器官移除、販賣兒童以及嬰兒等種種殘忍方式獲得暴利。

受害者可能基於語言隔閡、對人口販賣者或執法單位的恐懼,而不願意向外尋求協助。受害者甚至可能不能認清自己即為人口販賣的受害者。


防治與解決
自2013年起紐約勵馨,從熱線服務開始,開始服務人口販運受害者。
自2013年9月,紐約法院人口販運干預庭開始將被控賣淫與非法按摩的婦女轉介至社會服務機構接受輔導,視她們為人口販運受害者而不是犯罪者。 在接受一次的與移民律師會談與五次的社工機構輔導,如果在其後六個月之內沒有再度犯案的話,被告的案子將會被銷案。
紐約勵馨是其中一個與法院合作的輔導機構。我們提供法院陪同服務、個案心理輔導以及婦女支持團體。我們也有庇護所提供給所需的人。

具體的來說,我們對受害者提供心理創傷以及其需求之評估,另受害者瞭解什麼是人口販運以及他們的法律上的權利。幫助他們發展出一套處理策略與處理壓力的方法。並且,我們提供醫療以及社會資源轉介服務、工作機會以及職能訓練課程。我們期望受害者能夠走出創傷,重新建立他們的生活。幹什麼

紐約勵馨同時以公共教育的形式,舉辦演講以及其他的公開活動,提高社區對人口販運問題的警覺性。

by New York base Artist, Juan Luna